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How to Grade Diabetic Retinopathy
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Why Screen for Diabetic Retinopathy?
Retinal Photography for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening
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Retinal Photography for Diabetic Retinopathy Screening

The retina may be viewed non-invasively in the general practice setting by using a direct ophthalmoscope. However, this technique requires training and has inherent limitations, in that it affords a relatively small field of view and is dependent on pupil size.

The retina may also be visualized by fundus (retinal) photography. As an effective and efficient method for high volume screening, it is now used by many health systems worldwide as a screening tool for diabetic retinopathy. Studies have shown that non-mydriatic (with undilated pupils) photography has equal or better sensitivity and specificity when compared to direct ophthalmoscopy for this purpose.

Tool Sensitivity Specificity
Direct ophthalmoscope 45 -98% 62 – 100%
Non-mydriatic fundus camera 92% 97%
Reproduced from the CPG for the Screening of Diabetic Retinopathy, MOH, 2011